The rapper and businessman, real name Shawn Carter, shared his first post on the social media site as @jayz early on Wednesday morning.
It featured the poster for the forthcoming film The Harder They Fall, which tells a fictional story based on real-life black cowboys from American history.
They include outlaw Rufus Buck, played by Idris Elba, Treacherous Trudy Smith, played by Regina King, Stagecoach Mary, played by Zazie Beetz, and Nat Love, depicted by Jonathan Majors.
Jay-Z, 51, serves as producer on the feature and teamed up with fellow US rapper Kid Cudi for the song Guns Go Bang for the soundtrack.
This is dwarfed by his music superstar wife Beyonce, who has 216 million followers on Instagram, but she swiftly followed the new account back, making her husband the first person she has connected to on the social media platform.
Last month, Jay-Z was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame alongside Foo Fighters, Carole King, Tina Turner and The Go-Gos.
His catalogue includes songs like Hard Knock Life, 99 Problems and Empire State Of Mind, and he has had three number one singles and one number one album in the UK.